Exel Composites

Managing Aviation Safety

April 23, 2020
From the way aircraft are built to the design of airport masts, many factors are pivotal to maintaining safe aviation.

You are more likely to win an Oscar than be involved in a fatal air traffic accident—and to be honest; the odds are not even close. This variance in chance is less likely due to your acting skills and more down to the aviation industry’s dedication to safety. From the way aircraft are built to the design of airport masts, many factors are pivotal to maintaining safe aviation. Here, Pertti Kainu, product business owner for airport masts at leading composite technology company Exel Composites explains.

Air travel has extremely high safety standards and everything is designed to make the trip safe for everyone involved. Thanks to this dedication to safety, even though the number of flights per year is consistently increasing, the number of air traffic accidents continues to fall.

However, even with continuous mitigation of risk, with the number of journeys rising, the chance of an accident happening still increases. For this reason, the next step in increasing safety standards becomes mitigating the outcome of an incident by reducing the impact. Achieving this requires a thorough investigation of the most accident-prone areas of an air journey.

Statistics from the Boeing between 2008 and 2017 shows that for the 502.8 million departures over ten years, on its aircraft, there were only 2,386 fatalities. Boeing also reports that of these fatalities 56% occurred during the final descent and landing phase. While a similar report from Airbus indicates that 48% of all its recorded fatalities, between 1999 and 2018, also occurred during the landing phase.

These figures indicate that descent and landing are where more should be done to reduce the severity of incidents. For airport operators and designers, one of the critical parts to mitigating potential dangerous or fatal incidents is ensuring that all structures surrounding the runway are frangible.

Frangible structures

Frangible structures are designed to break into fragments, rather than bend when sustaining an impact. An easy way to think about this is by comparing how a cracker breaks in comparison to a gummy bear. Frangible structures are a major priority for airports, because of the vast array of visual and non-visual items situated near runways, taxiways, and aprons.

The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) has stringent rules concerning frangible airport support structures—demanding that they must be designed to break, yield on impact, and minimize the effect of an incident. For example, support structures should not impose a force in excess of 45-kilonewtons on the colliding aircraft, while the maximum energy needed to break a mast at the collision should not exceed 55-kilojoules.

ICAO requirements also require any structure located 240 meters from the end of the runway, and within 60 meters of either side of the centerline of the runway and approach lines, must be of low mass and frangible. Due to ICAO requirements, there are few materials that can match these specifications, while still being feasible for airport applications.

Material considerations

Composites are one of the primary materials from which airport frangible structures are built. Fiberglass is the most commonly used composite in the sector because it results in strong structures that can be constructed with walls as thin as two millimeters, which do not require breakoff points, unlike frangible metal structures.

Fiberglass doesn’t obstruct radio frequency signals, meaning airport operators don’t have to worry about operation critical communications being blocked. Composites are also more corrosion resistant than metals, are built to work in environments ranging from -50 to +80˚C, and can tolerate exposure to water, rain, humidity, maritime climate, and ultraviolet radiation from the sun.

To maintain stability, materials selected for frangible airport structures must only allow for a certain deflection. For example, the ICAO specifies that light masts can only deflect ±2° in the vertical axis and ±5° in the horizontal axis when the support is subjected to environmental loads, including wind and ice.

Design needs

All of these requirements demonstrate that there are many considerations while designing a frangible airport structure. For example, lighting towers play an important role in aircraft approach, as the masts guide planes towards the runway during descent. These lighting towers can range upwards of 35 meters in height, but frangibility is only required for the top twelve meters of taller towers.

Even though only the top third of a lighting tower must be frangible, it must also be strong enough to resist strong wind speeds. This is crucial because most frangible structures cannot remain stable if they are taller than six meters and would require non-frangible bases in order to remain stable. Working with a reliable expert in frangible airport structure manufacturing helps to ensure that all the necessary industry and environmental requirements are met.

Exel Composites has been at the forefront of composite frangible structures for over 15 years, having provided frangible structures to an extensive list of global airports. Over this time, Exel has carried out a large range of intensive testing on its offerings to ensure that they meet the stringent ICAO requirements.

While flying is one of the safest methods of transport, it requires constant vigilance to maintain current high safety standards. The aviation industry cannot afford to rest on its laurels and must continue to constantly upgrade safety procedures. As long as this focus on safety is at the forefront of importance for those in the industry, you can continue writing your Oscar acceptance speech knowing you are more likely to win the prestigious award than ever be involved in an aircraft incident.